Both lifestyle changes and medications can decrease uric acid levels. Dietary and lifestyle choices that are effective include reducing intake of food such as meat and seafood, consuming adequate vitamin C, limiting alcohol and fructose consumption, and avoiding obesity. A low-calorie diet in obese men decreased uric acid levels by 100 µmol/l (1.7 mg/dl). Vitamin C intake of 1,500 mg per day decreases the risk of gout by 45%. Coffee, but not tea, consumption is associated with a lower risk of gout. Gout may be secondary to sleep apnea via the release of purines from oxygen-starved cells. Treatment of apnea can lessen the occurrence of attacks.